How to Write a Paper, rd ed. Tullu MS, Karande S. Writing a model research paper: A roadmap.
J Postgrad Med. Dewan P, Gupta P. Writing the title, abstract and introduction: Looks matter!
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Anstey A. Writing style: Abstract thoughts. Br J Dermatol. Writing a research abstract: Eloquence in miniature. Int Angiol. The abstract and the elevator talk: A tale of two summaries. Abstract — The trailer of scientific communication.
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Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part II: Title and abstract. J Clin Epidemiol. Andrade C. How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. Indian J Psychiatry.
Recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing and publication of scholarly work in medical journals. Updated December Sagi I, Yechiam E. Amusing titles in scientific journals and article citation.
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It should not be misleading or misrepresentative. It should not be too long or too short or cryptic. It should avoid nonstandard abbreviations and unnecessary acronyms or technical jargon.
Writing the Results Section for a Research Paper :: Wordvice ::
Place of the study and sample size should be mentioned only if it adds to the scientific value of the title. Descriptive titles are preferred to declarative or interrogative titles.
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Authors should adhere to the word count and other instructions as specified by the target journal. Long title 28 words capturing the main theme; site of study is mentioned. Optimum number of words capturing the main theme; site of study is mentioned. Optimum number of words; population and intervention mentioned. Subtitle used to convey the main focus of the paper. Abbreviations RF and RHD can be deleted as corresponding full forms have already been mentioned in the title itself.
Abbreviations used. Slightly long title 18 words ; theme well-captured. Subtitle used to convey importance of the paper and to make the title more interesting. Number of cases emphasized because it is a large series; country India is mentioned in the title - will the clinical profile of patients with rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease vary from country to country? May be yes, as the clinical features depend on the socioeconomic and cultural background.
Very short title only four words - may miss out on the essential keywords required for indexing. Experience of Pediatric Tetanus Cases from Mumbai. If you used complex machinery or computer programs in the course of your experiment, to avoid breaking the flow of your report, you should give only the main information and refer to the exact technical specifications in the appendix. These should be a quick synopsis of the facts, figures and statistical tests used to arrive at your final results. You should try to avoid cluttering up your report and insert most of your raw data into the appendix.
It is far better to stick with including only tables and graphs that show clearly the results. Do not be tempted to insert large numbers of graphs and figures just for the sake of it; each figure and graph should be mentioned, referred to and discussed in the text. Try to avoid putting in tables and graphs showing the same information; select the type that shows your results most clearly.
It is usually preferable to use graphs and relegate the tables to the appendix because it is easier to show trends in graphical format. Figures and graphs should be clear and occupy at least half a page; you are not a magazine editor trying to fit a small graph into an article. All such information must be numbered, as diagrams for graphs and illustrations, and figures for tables; they should be referred to by this number in the body of the report.
You do not need to put the full breakdown of the calculations used for your statistical tests; most scientists hate statistics and are only interested in whether your results were significant or not. Relegate the calculations to the appendix. The results section of your report should be neutral and you should avoid discussing your results or how they differed from or compared with what was expected.
This information belongs in the next section. This is the pivotal section of your hard work in obtaining and analyzing your results. In your discussion you should seek to discuss your findings, and describe how they compared and differed from the results you expected.
Useful Phrases and Sentences for Academic & Research Paper Writing
In a nutshell, you are trying to show whether your hypothesis was proved, not proved or inconclusive. You must be extremely critical of yourself in this section; you will not get marked down for mistakes in experiment design or for poor results, only for not recognizing them. Everybody who has written a dissertation or thesis has had to give a presentation to a room full of fellow students, scientists and professors and give a quick synopsis. These people will tear your report apart if you do not recognize its shortcomings and flaws.
Very few experiments are per cent correct in their design and conception so it is not really important what your results were, only that you understand their significance. Usually you will have had some promising results and some that did not fit with what you expected. Discuss why things may have gone wrong and what could be done to refine the results in future.